**Update 1** I was pointed out that *there is *publicly available data for Gaussian quadrature rules up to 1024 points (and 25 significant digits). Moreover the link to the post with the data is present even in Wikipedia article I’ve been referring to. Sometimes I can be really inattentive.

**Update 2** I’ve calculated Gaussian quadrature rules of 128th and 256th orders with 50 digits accuracy and of 512th order with 35 digits (quad) precision. You can download them.

I’ve always been interested in integration, especially in its computer implementation. Recently I was playing with Gaussian quadrature, which is a numeric technique widely employed for computing definite integrals. The key feature of the method is that it allows one to compute integrals of polynomials up to degree 2*n*-1 while having the polynomial itself evaluated only in *n* points. That is with 128 points you can obtain exact integrals for polynomials of degree 255. Just imagine how many functions look like polynomials of 255 degree!

The Gaussian quadrature approximates the definite integral as

Points and weights are related to finding roots of Legendre polynomials. And now I’m coming to the point of this post. As I found it’s not easy to get tables for high order Gaussian quadrature rules. So I publish here 64 and 128 rules:

--64 point Gaussian Rulespoints = [0.99930504173577213946, 0.99634011677195527935, 0.99101337147674432074, 0.98333625388462595693, 0.97332682778991096374, 0.96100879965205371892, 0.94641137485840281606, 0.92956917213193957582, 0.91052213707850280576, 0.88931544599511410585, 0.86599939815409281976, 0.84062929625258036275, 0.81326531512279755974, 0.78397235894334140761, 0.75281990726053189661, 0.71988185017161082685, 0.68523631305423324256, 0.64896547125465733986, 0.61115535517239325025, 0.57189564620263403428, 0.53127946401989454566, 0.48940314570705295748, 0.44636601725346408798, 0.4022701579639916037, 0.35722015833766811595, 0.31132287199021095616, 0.26468716220876741637, 0.21742364374000708415, 0.16964442042399281804, 0.12146281929612055447, 0.07299312178779903945, 0.024350292663424432509] :: [Double] weights = [0.0017832807216964329473, 0.0041470332605624676353, 0.0065044579689783628561, 0.0088467598263639477231, 0.011168139460131128819, 0.013463047896718642598, 0.015726030476024719322, 0.017951715775697343085, 0.020134823153530209372, 0.022270173808383254159, 0.024352702568710873338, 0.026377469715054658672, 0.028339672614259483228, 0.030234657072402478868, 0.032057928354851553585, 0.033805161837141609392, 0.035472213256882383811, 0.03705512854024004604, 0.038550153178615629129, 0.039953741132720341387, 0.04126256324262352861, 0.042473515123653589007, 0.043583724529323453377, 0.04459055816375656306, 0.04549162792741814448, 0.046284796581314417296, 0.046968182816210017325, 0.047540165714830308662, 0.047999388596458307728, 0.04834476223480295717, 0.048575467441503426935, 0.048690957009139720383] :: [Double]--128 point Gaussian Rulespoints = [0.99982488794713191447, 0.99907745997737589501, 0.99773324862551401988, 0.99579275853498118687, 0.9932571129002129353, 0.99012781849173438334, 0.98640674272458620887, 0.98209610843571853603, 0.97719849146390738716, 0.9717168187471365809, 0.96565436643196526864, 0.9590147578536999281, 0.95180196134126438622, 0.94402028783022018212, 0.93567438827791637578, 0.92676925087894784333, 0.91731019808096053704, 0.90730288340175681392, 0.89675328804915818439, 0.88566771734539721741, 0.8740527969580317987, 0.86191546893954846059, 0.84926298757796896916, 0.83610291506090684712, 0.82244311695564384246, 0.80829175750791366012, 0.79365729476219329024, 0.77854847550641196685, 0.76297433004409472278, 0.74694416679706198117, 0.73046756674190880647, 0.71355437768358741334, 0.69621470836951433239, 0.67845892244771925937, 0.66029763227264605211, 0.64174169256230755715, 0.62280219391058491076, 0.6034904561585486242, 0.58381802162876308955, 0.56379664822661808391, 0.54343830241281036344, 0.52275515205117547845, 0.50175955913614446429, 0.48046407240417202586, 0.45888141983355219545, 0.43702450103710416294, 0.41490637955227501549, 0.39254027503326744274, 0.36993955534985902662, 0.34711772859763550843, 0.32408843502441337518, 0.30086543887767720267, 0.27746262017790440281, 0.25389396642269432086, 0.23017356422665998641, 0.20631559090207921715, 0.18233430598533718241, 0.158244042714224934, 0.13405919946118778512, 0.10979423112764374667, 0.085463640504515498637, 0.061081969604139568104, 0.03666379096873349333, 0.012223698960615764198] :: [Double] weights = [0.00044938096029209037639, 0.0010458126793403487793, 0.0016425030186690295388, 0.0022382884309626187436, 0.0028327514714579910953, 0.0034255260409102157743, 0.0040162549837386423132, 0.0046045842567029551183, 0.0051901618326763302051, 0.0057726375428656985893, 0.0063516631617071887872, 0.0069268925668988135634, 0.0074979819256347286877, 0.0080645898904860579729, 0.008626377798616749705, 0.0091830098716608743345, 0.0097341534150068058636, 0.010279479015832157133, 0.010818660739503076248, 0.011351376324080416693, 0.011877307372740279576, 0.012396139543950922969, 0.01290756273926734722, 0.013411271288616332315, 0.013906964132951985244, 0.014394345004166846177, 0.014873122602147314252, 0.015343010768865144086, 0.015803728659399346859, 0.016255000909785187052, 0.016696557801589204589, 0.017128135423111376831, 0.017549475827117704649, 0.01796032718500868594, 0.018360443937331343221, 0.018749586940544708651, 0.019127523609950945487, 0.019494028058706602823, 0.01984888123283086222, 0.020191871042130041181, 0.020522792486960069432, 0.020841447780751149114, 0.021147646468221348537, 0.021441205539208460137, 0.021721949538052075375, 0.021989710668460491434, 0.022244328893799765105, 0.022485652032744966872, 0.02271353585023646131, 0.02292784414368684692, 0.023128448824387027879, 0.023315229994062760122, 0.023488076016535913153, 0.023646883584447615144, 0.023791557781003400639, 0.023922012136703455672, 0.024038168681024052638, 0.024139957989019284998, 0.02422731922281524812, 0.024300200167971865323, 0.024358557264690625853, 0.024402355633849582093, 0.024431569097850045055, 0.024446180196262518211] :: [Double]

The rules are in Haskell list format. Points and weights were computed with the help of Axiom CAS and are given here with 20 digits accuracy (for those who are lucky to have 80 bit Double, not these shameful 64 bits). Axiom seems to be really great software, I wish I could conquer it someday.

To actually try Gaussian Quadrature here is the code for evaluating integrals:

moduleIntegration (nIntegrate)whereimportData.List baseCase :: (Double -> Double) -> Double baseCase func = foldl' (+) 0 $ map (\(x,w) -> w*(func x + func(-x))) $ zip points weights nIntegrate :: (Double -> Double) -> (Double, Double) -> Double nIntegrate func (a, b) = 0.5*(b-a) * baseCase(\x -> func $ 0.5*((b-a)*x+b+a))

It provides the function . For example

*Integration128> nIntegrate (\x -> (sin x)^2) (0, 20*pi) 31.41592653589792

and the exact value for it is 31.41592653589793. Square root is not so similar to polynomials:

*Integration128> nIntegrate sqrt (0, 9) 18.00000131014299

Those who are interested in the current state of high precision numerical integration I refer to the article by D.H Bailey and J.M Borwein “High precision numerical integration: Progress and challenges”. The article also highlights some interesting applications of numerical integration in the field of experimental mathematics

1. You said “it’s not easy to get tables for high order Gaussian quadrature rules”, however even at wikipedia article you can find a link to tables with up to 1024 points and 25 significant digits. Btw, I compared some points you published in the post with those I found and fortunately they matched.

2. Little question: you tried to evaluate an integral of sqrt(x). This function has no derivative at x=0. Does it affect approximation order of the method? I mean there is no estimate of error like (this estimate holds for functions that have 2n-th derivative over entire integration interval), right?

If somebody is interested, we (me and Rocking Cat) have discussed the issue in a private conversation.

Hi,

I am author of that page referred in wikipedia.

It is true – it is difficult to calculate Gaussian quadrature nodes with high precision.

I had to modify classical algorithm to ensure correctness of every digit.

I am glad our results matches.

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